EUROCODE 2: Design of concrete structures

Part 1: General rules and rules buildings



1. General
1.1 Scope
1.1.1 Scope of Eurocode 2
1.1.2 Scope of Part 1 of Eurocode 2
1.2 Normative references
1.2.1 General reference standards
1.2.2 Other references
1.3 Assumptions
1.4 Distinction between principles and application rules Definitions
1.5.1 General
1.5.2 Additional terms used in this Standard Precast structures Plain or lightly reinforced concrete member Unbonded and external tendons Prestress
1.6 Special symbols used in this Standard
1.6.1 General
1.6.2 Latin upper case symbols
1.6.3 Latin lower case symbols
1.6.4 Greek symbols
2. Basis of design
2.1 Requirements
2.1.1 Basic requirements
2.1.2 Reliability management
2.1.3 Design working life, durability and quality management
2.2 Principles of limit state design
2.3 Basic variables
2.3.1 Actions and environment influences Prestress
2.3.2 Material and product properties Shrinkage and creep
2.3.3 Geometric data Supplementary requirements for cast in piace piles
2.4 Verification by the partial factor method
2.4.1 Design values Partial factors for shrinkage action Partial factors for prestress Partial factors for fatigue loads Partial factors for materials Partial factors for materials for foundations
2.4.2 Combination of actions
2.4.3 Verification of static equilibrium (EQU)
2.5 Design assisted by testing
2.6 Supplementary requirements for foundations
3. Materials
3.1 Concrete
3.1.3 General
3.1.2 Strength
3.1.3 Elastic deformation
3.1.4 Creep and shrinkage
3.1.5 Stress-strain relation for non-linear structural analysis
3.1.6 Design compressive and tensile strengths
3.1.7 Stress-strain relations for the design of sections
3.1.8 Flexural tensile strength
3.1.9 Confined concrete
3.2 Reinforcing steel
3.2.1 General
3.2.2 Properties Strength Ductility characteristics Welding Fatigue
3.2.3 Design assumptions
3.3 Prestressing steel
3.3.1 General
3.3.2 Properties Strength Ductility characteristics Fatigue
3.3.3 Design assumptions
3.3.4 Prestressing tendons in sheaths
3.4 Prestressing devices
3.4.1 Anchorages and couplers General Mechanical properties Anchored tendons Anchored devices and anchorage zones
3.4.2 External non-bonded tendons General Anchorages
4. Durability and cover to reinforcement
4.1 General
4.2 Environmental conditions
4.3 Requirements for durability
4.4 Verifications
4.4.1 Concrete cover General Minimum cover, Cmin Allowance in design for tolerance
4.4.2 Other verification methods
5. Structural analysis
5.1 General provisions
5.1.1 Special requirements for foundations
5.1.2 Load cases and combinations
5.1.3 Imperfections
5.1.4 Second order effects
5.1.5 Deformations of concrete
5.1.6 Thermal effects
5.1.7 Uneven settlements
5.2 Geometric imperfections
5.3 Idealisation of the structure
5.3.1 Structural models for overall analysis
5.3.2 Geometric data Effective width of flanges (all limit states) Effective span of beams and slabs in buildings
5.4 Linear elastic analysis
5.5 Linear analysis with limited redistribution
5.6 Plastic methods of analysis
5.6.1 General
5.6.2 Plastic analysis for beams, frames and slabs
5.6.3 Rotation capacity
5.6.4 Analysis of struts and ties
5.7 Non-linear analysis
5.8 Second order effects with axial load
5.8.1 Definitions
5.8.2 General
5.8.3 Simplified criteria for second order effects Slenderness Criterion for isolated members Slenderness and effective length of isolated members Global second order effects in buildings
5.8.4 Creep
5.8.5 Methods of analysis
5.8.6 General method
5.8.7 Second order analysis based on nominal stiffness General Nominal stiffness Practical methods of analysis
5.8.8 Method based on nominal curvature General Bending moments Curvature
5.8.9 Biaxial bending
5.9 Lateral instability of slender beams
5.10 Prestressed members and structures
5.10.1 General
5.10.2 Prestressing force Maximum stressing force Limitation of concrete stress Measurements
5.10.3 Prestressing force
5.10.4 Losses of prestress Immediate losses of prestress for pre-tensioning
5.10.5 Immediate losses of prestress for post-tensioning Losses due to the instantaneous deformation of concrete Losses due to friction Losses at anchorage
5.10.6 Long term losses of prestress for pre- and post-tensioning
5.10.7 Consideration of prestress in analysis
5.10.8 Effects of prestressing at ultimate limit state
5.10.9 Effects of prestressing at serviceability limit state and limit state of fatigue
5.11 Shear walls
6. Ultimate limit states
6.1 Bending with or without axial force
6.2 Shear
6.2.1 General verification procedure
6.2.2 Members not requiring design shear reinforcement
6.2.3 Members requiring design shear reinforcement
6.2.4 Shear between web and flanges of T-sections
6.2.5 Shear at the interface between concretes cast at different times
6.3 Torsion
6.3.1 General
6.3.2 Design procedure
6.3.3 Warping torsion
6.4 Punching
6.4.1 General
6.4.2 Load distribution and basic control perimeter
6.4.3 Punching shear calculation
6.4.4 Punching shear resistance for slabs or column bases without shear reinforcement
6.4.5 Punching shear resistance of slabs or column bases with shear reinforcement
6.5 Design of struts, tie and nodes
6.5.1 General
6.5.2 Struts
6.5.3 Ties
6.5.4 Nodes
6.6 Anchorages and laps
6.7 Partially loaded areas
6.8 Fatigue
6.8.1 Verification conditions
6.8.2 Internal forces and stresses for fatigue verification
6.8.3 Combination of actions
6.8.4 Verification procedure for reinforcing and prestressing steel
6.8.5 Verification using damage equivalent stress
6.8.6 Other verifications
6.8.7 Verification of concrete using damage equivalent stress
7. Serviceability limit states
7.1 General
7.2 Stresses
7.3 Cracking
7.3.1 General considerations
7.3.2 Minimum reinforcement areas
7.3.3 Control of cracking without direct calculation
7.3.4 Calculation of crack widths
7.4 Deformation
7.4.1 General considerations
7.4.2 Cases where calculations may be omitted
7.4.3 Checking deflections by calculation
8. Detailing of reinforcement – General
8.1 General
8.2 Spacing of bars
8.3 Permissible mandrel diameters for bent bars
8.4 Anchorage of longitudinal reinforcement
8.4.1 General
8.4.2 Ultimate bond stress
8.4.3 Basic anchorage length
8.4.4 Design anchorage length
8.5 Anchorage of links and shear reinforcement
8.6 Anchorage by welded bars
8.7 Laps and mechanical couplers
8.7.1 General
8.7.2 Laps
8.7.3 Lap length
8.7.4 Transverse reinforcement in the lap zone Transverse reinforcement for bars in tension Transverse reinforcement for bars permanently in compression
8.7.5 Laps for welded mesh fabrics made of ribbed wires Laps of the main reinforcement Laps of secondary or distribution reinforcement
8.8 Additional rules for large diameter bars
8.9 Bundled bars
8.9.1 General
8.9.2 Anchorage of bundles of bars
8.9.3 Lapping bundles of bars
8.10 Prestressing tendons
8.10.1 Arrangement of prestressing tendons and ducts Pre-tensioned tendons Post-tension ducts
8.10.2 Anchorage of pre-tensioned tendons Transfer of prestress Anchorage of tensile force for the ultimate limit state
8.10.3 Anchorage zones of post-tensioned members
8.10.4 Anchorages and couplers for prestressing tendons
8.10.5 Deviators
9. Detailing of members and particular requirements
9.1 General
9.2 Beams
9.2.1 Longitudinal reinforcement Minimum and maximum reinforcement areas Other detailing arrangements Curtailment of the longitudinal tension reinforcement Anchorage of bottom reinforcement at an end support Anchorage of bottom reinforcement at intermediate supports
9.2.2 Shear reinforcement
9.2.3  Torsional reinforcement
9.2.4 Surface reinforcement
9.2.5 Indirect supports
9.3 Solid slabs
9.3.1 Flexural reinforcement General Reinforcement in slabs near supports Corner reinforcement Reinforcement at the free edges
9.3.2 Shear reinforcement
9.4 Flat slabs
9.4.1 Definition
9.4.2 Equivalent frame analysis
9.4.3 Irregular column layout
9.4.4 Reinforcement in flat slabs Slab at internal columns Slab at edge columns Punching shear reinforcement
9.5 Columns
9.5.1 Longitudinal reinforcement
9.5.2 Transverse reinforcement
9.6 Walls
9.6.1 General
9.6.2 Vertical reinforcement
9.6.3 Horizontal reinforcement
9.6.4 Transverse reinforcement
9.7 Deep beams
9.8 Foundations
9.8.1 Pile caps
9.8.2 Column and wall footings Anchorage of bars
9.8.3 Tie beams
9.8.4 Column footing on rock
9.8.5 Bored piles
9.9 Regions with discontinuity in geometry or action
9.9.1 Frame corners Frame corners with closing moment Frame corners with opening moment
9.9.2 Corbels
9.10 Tying systems
9.10.1 General
9.10.2 Proportioning of ties Peripheral ties Internal ties Horizontal ties to columns and/or walls Vertical ties
9.10.3 Continuity and anchorage of ties
10. Additional rules for precast concrete elements and structures
10.1 General
10.1.1 Special terms used in this section
10.2 Basis of design, fundamental requirements
10.3 Materials
10.3.1 Concrete Strength Elastic deformation Creep and shrinkage
10.3.2 Prestressing steel Technological properties of prestressing steel
10.5 Structural analysis, general provisions
10.5.1 General
10.5.2 Losses of prestress
10.9 Particular rules for design and detailing
10.9.1 Restraining moments in slabs
10.9.2 Wall to floor connections
10.9.3 Floor systems
10.9.4 Connections and supports for precast elements Materials General rules for design and detailing of connections Connections transmitting compressive forces Connections transmitting.shear forces Connections transmitting ‘bending moments or tensile forces Half joints Anchorage of reinforcement at supports
10.9.5 Bearings General Bearings for connected members Bearings for isolated members
10.9.6 Pocket foundations
10;9.6.1 Pockets with keyed surfaces Pockets with smooth surfaces
10.9.7 Tying systems
11. Lightweight aggregated concrete structures
11.1 General
11.1.1 Scope
11.1.2 Special symbols
11.2 Basis of design
11.3 Materials
11.3.1 Concrete
11.3.2 Elastic deformation
11.3.3 Creep and shrinkage
11.3.4 Stress-strain relations for structural analysis
11.3.5 Design compressive and tensile strengths
11.3.6 Stress-strain relations for the design of sections
11.3.7 Confined concrete
11.4 Durability
11.4.1 Environmental conditions
11.4.2 Concrete cover and properties of concrete
11.5 Structural analysis
11.6 Ultimate limit states
11.6.1 Members not requiring design shear reinforcement
11.6.2 Members requiring design shear reinforcement
11.6.3 Torsion Design procedure
11.6.4 Punching Slabs or column bases without punching shear reinforcement Slabs or column bases containing punching shear reinforcement
11.6.5 Partially loaded areas
11.7 Serviceability limit states
11.8 Detailing of reinforcement – General
11.8.1 Permissible mandrel diameters for bent bars
11.8.2 Ultimate bond stress
11.9 Detailing of members and particular rules
11.12 Plain and lightly reinforced concrete structures
12. Plain and lightly reinforced concrete structures
12.1 General
12.2 Basis of design
12.2.1 Additional partial safety factors for materials
12.3 Materials
12.3.1 Concrete: additional design assumptions
12.5 Structural analysis: general provisions
12.5.1 Ultimate Limit states
12.6 Ultimate limit states for bending and axial force
12.6.1  Design resistance to bending and axial force
12.6.2 Local Failure
12.6.3 Shear
12.6.4 Torsion
12.6.5 Ultimate limit states induced by structural deformation (buckling) Slenderness of columns and walls Simplified design method for walls and columns
12.7 Serviceability limit states
12.9 Detailing provisions
12.9.1 Structural members
12.9.2 Construction joints
12.9.3 Strip and pad footings
Informative annexes
A Modification of partial factors for materials
B Creep and shrinkage
C Indicative Strength Classes for durability
D Global second order effects in structures
E Soil structure interaction
F Reinforcement expressions for in-plane stress conditions
G Detailed method for the calculation for prestressing steel relaxation losses
H Clauses referring to a National Annex